Title: PINTADAS DEL REFERENDUM
Writer(s): Emanuel Lizcano, José Luis L.Aranguren
Designer(s): Fernando Gil, Pedro Diez Perpignan
Publisher(s): El Equipo Diorama, Madrid, Spain
Size:15 x 21 cm
Print: Fotomecànica Ochoa- Ricardo Ortiz, Madrid, Spain
Nation(s) and year(s) of Protest: Spain, 1976
A referendum was held in December 1976 in Spain to vote on the political reform bill and a group of photographer called Equipo Diorama recorded the street graffiti made to comunicate the various positions in field and induce the reader to draw their own conclusions. The book's intention, as stated on its back cover, is to record the graffiti, "to preserve it, through photography, as a necessary testament to and document of the vicissitudes of a people in pursuit of their future".
Throughout history, street graffiti have been used to comunicate in an interaction between the protesters and the population and although it has changed in method is yet it retained its identity as a protest symbol.
We can also consider in a larger view that other than expressing discontent or of showing support for or membership of a particular political group, we can consider it as territorial marking or personal branding.
The street graffiti with their slogan tells the story of a country and the inscriptions on the wall gave the protesters the freedom to represent all positions reminding that "humor in protest is a call that sets a trap for those who attack".